Hazards 31

Programme

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Format

The conference will be live from 09:30–17:00 GMT each day. Presentations will be pre-recorded and broadcast as part of the live timetable. They will be available to view 'on demand' soon afterwards, and for 30 days after the event, helping you to catch up on anything you missed, or revisit presentations that you found particularly interesting, at a time that suits you best.

Technical presentations

There are 80+ technical presentations sharing practical process safety insight from industry practitioners, researchers and regulators. These will present examples of good practice, new approaches, and valuable lessons learned that you can apply to your own processes, and explore some of the challenges and opportunities in process safety. 

Discussion time

There will be live Q&A at the end of each presentation. There will also be facilitated discussion time at the end of each session, to help continue the conversation, identify the issues on the ground and the future actions needed. 

Session themes and presentation summaries

Analysis of Losses

Trends in Offshore Process Equipment Leak Frequencies
Brian Bain, DNV, UK

The HSE’s Hydrocarbon Release Database (HCRD) has become recognised as the main source of information for collating data on accidental process releases. Information derived from the HCRD is used in many parts of the world and for onshore sites as well as offshore installations.

Graphs of number of incidents by year show that there has been a general downward trend in the frequency of leaks from process equipment over the period in which data has been collected. The question arises as to whether the trend is similar for all equipment types or whether there are distinct differences. This paper reports the results of a study into the variation of frequencies with time for different equipment types to examine the relative rates of reduction and to establish if there are any equipment types where frequencies are now increasing.

Analysis of Accidents and Good Inspection Practices for the Management of Ageing of Industrial Plants
Romualdo Marrazzo & Fabrizio Vazzana, Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Italy

Sharing of international experience and regulatory practice from an Italian regulator. The presentation will begin by reviewing some industrial accidents at “Seveso” establishments where ageing mechanisms were identified as a significant cause. It will then provide an overview of national legislation and a proposed approach to good practices for the management of ageing plant.

Analysis of Worldwide Transportation of Dangerous Goods Incidents for Regulatory and Safety Management Systems Improvement
Alexander Robert Damphouse, Fereshteh Sattari & Lianne Lefsrud, University of Alberta, Canada

Recent Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) rail incidents, like the Canadian Lac-Mégantic in 2013, the US Graniteville in 2005, and Italy’s Viareggio in 2009, indicate clear catastrophic consequences when failures in safety process management and design occur. Evaluating these incidents, among others, through fault tree, bow tie, and Swiss cheese model analysis, and utilising root cause and leading safety indicators, individual incident causations are drawn. More importantly, investigating these incidents through the operating regulations and safety management practices of other jurisdictions for comparative reasons, new conclusions are drawn regarding the level of effectiveness of each jurisdiction's regulatory and safety management systems practices. This study seeks to find correlations between factors and conditions leading to incidents and the regulations and safety standards that prevent them. Results show a large responsibility on railcar designs contributing to containment releases for the United States and Canada, and a partial non-consolidation of transport regulations for the countries within the European Union. Additionally, there needs to be a greater emphasis on managing and correcting human factors as they continue to be significant direct and indirect factors leading to incidents.

Assurance

Process Safety Key Performance Indicators (API-754 Guidelines)
Ameer Hamza & Syed Salwat Hosain Rizvi, Engro Polymer & Chemicals, Pakistan

Practical experience from a petrochemical plant of applying and adapting the API-754 guidelines to monitor their process safety key performance indicators (KPIs).

Analysis of Quantitative Risk Assessment Methodology and Worldwide Comparison on Risk Acceptability Criteria
Ravi Kumar Sharma, Indian Institute of Technology, India

A review of QRA methodologies and the various international risk criteria in use today.

Learning from Major Incidents Related to Process Safety Audits
Zsuzsanna Gyenes, IChemE Safety Centre, UK

This presentation discusses two major incidents, focusing on different aspects. The first one (at an oil refinery) explores when audit findings got ignored or overlooked; the second incident (at a chemical manufacturing plant) shows when audits failed to address problems in the system. Following the analysis, the presentation will suggest practical recommendations, based on the different, major roles within an industrial site, to avoid future recurrence of such events.

Major Common Issues Arising from Process Safety Management Audits
Rod Prior, SHExcellence, South Africa

An analysis of common recurring issues seen from audits across several companies in different chemical sectors recently.

Case Histories

Human-Factors and Automation-Related Accidents in the Railway Industry
Mona Ahmadi Rad, Lianne M. Lefsrud, Michael Hendry & Daniel Blais, University of Alberta

This paper reviews automation-related accidents in the railway industry, analyses the contributing factors, and discusses the transferable lessons learned.

Investigating Unusual Powder Decomposition Incidents
Stephen Rowe, Clive de Salis, Simon Gakhar & Andrew Jennings, Dekra Organisational & Process Safety, UK

Lessons learned from the incident investigation and supporting safety testing following unusual powder decomposition incidents at two manufacturing facilities which confounded conventional wisdom.

Investigation into a Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC) Failure of an Onshore Pipeline
Keith Birkitt, Aneta Nemcova & Ian Chapman, Health & Safety Executive, UK

Lessons learned from the investigation into the failure of a 6” (153 mm) diameter steel pipeline resulting in the loss of approximately 450 m3 of liquid hydrocarbon and water, which concluded microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) as a contributing factor.

Clean Technologies – Hydrogen

Hydrogen Projects – Business as Usual?
Clare Dunkerley, Otto Simon, UK

This paper will look at advances in process safety knowledge gained from recent hydrogen trials. It will look at the inherent properties of hydrogen and pinpoint how those properties could introduce major hazards to an installation, whilst looking at potential solutions for addressing them in the design. It will also discuss the differences between an innovative hydrogen trial project vs. a more well-established natural gas project. It will highlight the need to follow a rigorous hazard identification and risk assessment process and look at the tools available to a process safety engineer to provide reassurance that the correct steps have been taken, that best practice has been followed, and the necessary documentary evidence generated.

It is intended that this paper will share insights gained from being responsible for the process safety deliverables on recent hydrogen projects. It will discuss the challenges faced with trying to comply with natural gas industry standards when delivering a hydrogen project and will demonstrate that allowing for process safety from the earliest concept stage of a project onwards can save time and money.

The objective is to demonstrate that by applying known and established techniques of hazard identification, risk assessment, risk analysis and best industry practice, you can: apply the familiar to the unfamiliar; give confidence to owners, operators, regulators and investors; and deliver a project where the hazards are identified, the risks are understood, and all the right safeguards have been delivered.

Ammonia, Methane, Hydrogen Oh My! Understanding Hazards from Alternative Power to Gas Options
Darren Malik & Kelly Thomas, BakerRisk, USA

Proper understanding of hydrogen and ammonia hazards is one of the key requirements for ensuring public safety and avoiding the derailment of these key components of a carbon neutral economy. Ammonia and hydrogen represent opposite ends of the spectrum with regard to the potential blast loading resulting from an accidental vapor cloud explosion (VCE), although some in industry have expressed doubts as to whether either of these fuels actually poses a VCE hazard. Ammonia is sometimes discounted as a VCE hazard due to the perceived difficulty in igniting an ammonia-air mixture and/or because of its low laminar burning velocity. Hydrogen is sometimes discounted as a VCE hazard due to the ease with which a hydrogen-air mixture can be ignited and/or because of its buoyancy. This paper discusses these perceptions and presents results from relevant unconfined ammonia, methane, and hydrogen VCE tests.

Developments and Uncertainties in Hydrogen Fuels Risk Assessment
Michael Moosemiller, Baker Engineering & Risk Consultants, USA & Rob Magraw, BakerRisk Europe, UK

The widespread adoption of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as part of the transition to low-carbon energy consumption is reliant on the development of a comprehensive infrastructure able to supply hydrogen fuel in an accessible, reliable, and safe manner. Whilst organisations such as ISO and IEC are developing standards for this technology, for many countries this is lagging or in parallel with the design, siting, and operation of many fuelling facilities. While hydrogen has obviously been present in industrial environments for many decades, the risks associated with its use as a consumer fuel still have many uncertainties.

This paper explores some of these uncertainties – what is known and what is still obscure, the path forward for resolving the unknowns, and the potential consequences of failure to adequately understand and address in risk analysis studies during the design, siting, and operation of hydrogen fuelling facilities.

Quantification of the Risks Associated with a Hydrogen Gas Distribution Network
Andrew Phillips, Mike Acton & Ann Halford, DNV, UK; R Oxley & D Evans, Northern Gas Networks, UK

The H21 Network Innovation Competition (NIC) project aims to address the issues associated with the conversion of the Great Britain (GB) gas distribution networks from natural gas (predominantly methane) to pure hydrogen gas. The overriding objective of the project is to provide the compelling safety-based evidence for a 100% hydrogen conversion in the GB gas distribution networks; specifically, that the pipes and equipment in 2032 will be as safe operating on 100% hydrogen as the current natural gas system.

This paper describes the QRA methodology developed for hydrogen gas networks during Phase 1 of the H21 NIC project and its application to predict the risks associated with a converted gas distribution network, including consideration of risk mitigation options. Phase 2 is in progress, incorporating the predicted risks associated with hydrogen leakage from downstream of the ECV, to provide a holistic overview of the potential risks associated with a possible conversion from natural gas to hydrogen and the effectiveness of practical risk reduction measures.

Review of the Current Understanding of Hydrogen Jet Fires and the Potential Effect on PFP Performance
Michael Johnson & Robert Crewe, DNV, UK; Graham Boaler & John Evans, Thornton Tomasetti, UK

As with hydrocarbon fuels, if an accidental release of pressurised hydrogen occurs, there is the potential for a jet fire. As the scale of hydrogen deployment grows, there will undoubtedly be the need to protect critical structures and equipment using PFP. It is therefore important to understand if the performance of current PFP materials in hydrogen jet fires will be comparable to that in a hydrocarbon jet fire. To do this we must first understand the similarities and differences between hydrogen and hydrocarbon release scenarios and then assess how this might affect the properties of a jet fire. The uncertainties and gaps in knowledge need to be identified, particularly in terms of how this might affect PFP performance. Finally, once the gaps have been addressed, there is a need to determine if the standard fire testing of PFP materials needs to be changed to demonstrate PFP performance against hydrogen jet fires.

Maximum Overpressure and Flame Velocity of Methane/Hydrogen Layers Vented Deflagrations in a Large-Scale Enclosure
David Eduardo Torrado Beltran, James Fletcher, Andrew Tooke & Philip Hooker, Health & Safety Executive, UK; Thomas Isaac, Progressive Energy, UK; Dave Lander, Consultant, UK

One of the main contributors to CO2 emissions in the UK is the use of natural gas as an energy source for domestic properties and industrial applications. Adding hydrogen to mains natural gas has been identified as a key strategy to reduce CO2. The understanding of the explosion severity of blend dispersions is required to evaluate the consequences in the case of a gas incident. This work aims to characterise the maximum pressure and flame velocity of vented deflagrations of layers for the ‘blend’ (80:20 %v./v. methane/hydrogen) and methane.

Assessment of Enclosure Ventilation Safety for Hydrogen Fuelled Gas Turbines
Tristan Vye & Aidan Wimshurst, Frazer Nash Consultancy, UK

This paper explores the implications for enclosure safety of operating gas turbines on hydrogen. It will also present a method of assessing enclosure safety to demonstrate adherence to the principles of ISO 21789. The approach detailed takes the original experimental work, carried out by a HSE JIP which identified the maximum undetectable gas cloud size allowable based on a 10 mbar overpressure limit and replicates it for hydrogen, using a modelling tool (FLACS CFD). This assessment of explosion overpressures is used to define a new threshold cloud size volume for hydrogen and hydrogen/methane blends which can be used in a CFD assessment of dilution ventilation. The modelling work demonstrates operating with hydrogen can lead to significantly higher overpressures unless the threshold volume is reduced. The impact of reduced threshold volumes on detection strategies is explored through a CFD dilution ventilation analysis.

The Use of CFD for the Design of Hydrogen Bulk Storage Areas
Michael Bristow, Pablo Giacopinelli, Graham Morrison & Gary Pilkington, Gexcon, UK

The number of hydrogen fuelling stations, bulk storage areas and other facilities handling hydrogen (e.g. fuel cell manufacturers and hydrogen electrolysers) is increasing. Although hydrogen is a clean burning fuel, the storage and use of hydrogen has numerous explosion safety implications due to the dangerous explosibility characteristics of the fuel. Although the potential dangers of the use and storage of hydrogen have been identified, there are few available relevant guidance documents / standards (specifically COP CP 33 – “Bulk storage of gaseous hydrogen at users’ premises”) for the design of these areas in terms of safety during an ignited event (eg recommended layouts and separation distances to occupied buildings etc). Based on case studies on real facilities undertaken by Gexcon, it is felt that the safety distances outlined in the code of practice could be under predicted in some circumstances, which can lead to inadequate separation distances, resulting in non-conservative designs, higher risks, non ALARP designs etc. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the discrepancies between the currently available guidance with case studies conducted by Gexcon (using CFD modelling).

Clean Technologies – Other

Managing the Major Accident Potential of Carbon Capture and Storage CO2
Hamish Holt & Michael Simms, DNV, UK

This presentation will raise awareness of the properties and behaviours of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) CO2 and highlight how they could cause or contribute to a major accident hazard (MAH) event. It will reference the CO2RISKMAN Guidance and other industry standards and guidelines so that those who need additional knowledge know the references available and where to find them.

Smoke, Sparks, Flames or Explosions? An Experimental Study into How Lithium-ion Cell Failure Varies in Open Field
Katie Abbott, Jonathan Buston & Jason Gill, Health & Safety Executive, UK

Lithium-ion batteries form an essential component of transportation and energy storage as part of the UK’s Government drive to Net Zero. They are also increasingly being used for numerous applications in many different formats. Batteries store energy in chemical form, and the majority of lithium-ion cells require the use of flammable substances within them. When a cell fails, its stored energy can be released, and the components can combust in a number of ways. In addition, there are many possible pathways to induce cell failure, and extensive research has been previously conducted to explore these failure methods. However, questions remain regarding specific cell behaviour during failure and how this affects the fire risk posed by the cells. The work presented here offers experimental results and practical perspective on cell behaviour during failure in open field testing that informs better understanding of this technology.  

Experimental Understanding of Displacement and Forces Generated Due to Swelling During Lithium-ion Pouch Cell Failure
Gemma Howard, Jason Gill & Jonathan Buston, Health & Safety Executive, UK

In safety terms, a number of questions remain about the mechanical failure of pouch cells when exposed to conditions such as overcharging, short circuiting, penetration, or external heating. During cell failure, gases are produced as a result of thermal decomposition of the electrolyte components.  This gas generation results in an increase in pressure within the cell which leads to expansion of the physical dimensions of the cell through swelling and can ultimately result in cell rupture with the venting of gases and possibly flame. The work presented here provides a real-world understanding of the failure behaviour of pouch cells.  

Cross-sector Learning

What the Processing Industry Must Learn from the Boeing 737 MAX Crashes
Richard Carter, ACM Facility Safety, Canada

At first glance, it would appear that there is not much a processing facility can learn from an aviation disaster. However, in reality there are many similarities between aviation safety and process safety, and therefore lessons learned in one of these industries are valuable for the other.

Both a commercial aircraft and an operating plant involve continuous, or extended, operation of sophisticated pieces of equipment with physical parts, control systems, programming, and human factors. Both are operated by trained, experienced personnel who monitor a system for many hours at a time yet are required to respond within a manner of seconds to an abnormal situation. Both have the potential for highly hazardous scenarios to occur, and both rely on a variety of automatic and manual controls to prevent severe outcomes if something goes wrong. So, when a failure of safety is identified in either industry, it is important to ask what the other industry can also learn.

This paper will discuss the management and design failures that led to the two Boeing 737 MAX crashes, which killed 346 people and caused all aircraft of this type worldwide to be grounded. It will show how the lessons learned from these failures are directly applicable to the processing industry.

Thinking Outside the Box: Lessons and Experience that the Major Hazard and Nuclear Sectors Can Learn from Each Other
Ian Phillips, Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), UK

Ian will explore the transferable nuclear lessons that other sectors can learn from, as well as how COMAH lessons learned from the traditional process industries can be applied to the nuclear sector.

A Case Study of The Halo and Safety Culture in Motorsport
Andrew Laird & Dr Esther Ventura-Medina, University of Strathclyde, UK

The organisational culture found within professional sport is often put forward as an example for industry to look towards on how it improves its own performance. The history of safety within motorsport offers similarly important lessons on safety culture which are applicable in the chemical and process industry, or indeed any industry.

This case study focuses on the introduction of the halo device into a number of open wheel racing series, such as Formula 1 (F1), where it has been mandatory since 2018. So named because it consists of a bar surrounding the driver which acts to protect their head and neck from the impact of other cars, barriers, and debris, such as loose tyres. Its introduction, which was at first controversial but has since been embraced by teams and fans alike, offers lessons on the role that leadership, learning and specific cultural context’s play in creating a positive or negative safety culture.

Digitalisation

Best Practices to Optimise Management of Change System and Manage the MOC Digital Transition
Hussain Alabduljabbar, Saudi Aramco, Saudi Arabia

This paper describes best practices to optimise the management of change (MOC) process. It includes a deep-dive into methods to enhance competency and ensure sustainable mechanisms to elevate frontline employees’ awareness. Then, it discusses a plan-do-check-act approach to implement the MOC system. It also describes best practices to drive continuous improvement including methods to identify uncontrolled changes. Finally, a deep-dive into MOC digitisation and its challenges will be discussed with recommendations to ensure effective deployment. 

Improving Loss Prevention in High Hazard Industries Through the Evaluation of Safety Culture and Error Traps from Structured and Unstructured Data Using Machine Learning
Gus Carroll & Dr Nyala Noe, Empirisys, UK; Dr Mike Orley, Centrica Storage, UK

Empirisys is a new technology start-up that focuses on using machine learning techniques to analyse large corpuses of structured and unstructured data. A particular focus is to help operators in high hazard sectors better understand their safety culture, the effect of culture on performance influencing factors (or error traps) and how this insight can reduce the likelihood of major accidents and unplanned outages. This paper reports on research being undertaken with Centrica Storage Ltd.

Cyber Attacks on Process Plants and Understanding What is Needed
Clive de Salis, Dekra, UK

This presentation concentrates on misunderstandings and mistakes encountered when doing actual cyber-protection projects on process plants.

Power in the Wrong Hands: the Rise of Cybersecurity Risk in the Chemical Industry
Ian Bramson, ABS Group, USA

This presentation will address the specific risks, pain points and challenges of maturing cybersecurity capabilities in the chemical Operational Technology (OT) environment. It will also discuss best practices, lessons learned and approaches to maturing your OT cybersecurity program. Finally, it will discuss how industrial cybersecurity threats have adapted and will evolve over the next several years, sharing real-life examples of how to better protect, defend, detect and respond to the growing industrial cyber threat.

Using Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Techniques to Analyse Incident Reports
Fereshteh Sattari, Daniel Kurian, Renato Macciotta & Lianne Lefsrud, University of Alberta, Canada

A review of work undertaken to combine expert knowledge and data analytics (Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Keyword Analysis) to create a reaction network for Asset Integrity Management (AIM) and provide a theoretical and practical basis for handling uncertainty in large data sets such as company incident databases. The purpose of the current study is to control and minimise the total number of incidents that occur within an oil and gas operation by applying a multidisciplinary approach to explore and develop AIM. This systematic approach can improve AIM to better understand all the factors involved and the underlying dynamics ever-present in the system. AIM is divided into 2 major groups, asset and human factors – then, in order to get more detailed results, each group is divided into 9 and 5 subcategories, respectively. This study seeks to find correlations between these factors and the total number of incidents.

Practical Guidance for Applying Data Science Techniques in Health & Safety
Scott Kimbleton & Graziella Caputo, IBM, USA

Within the data lies an entirely new type of corporate memory. One told by the data itself. The authors suggest that the definition of corporate memory should be expanded with one word "the combined experience and knowledge of a company’s employees, and DATA."  Meaning, an event already happened and through the data we are 'remembering' and can then visualise and/or store this result for future reference. If we accept that the 'existence of data' means 'something happened, in the past' (exactly what we may not know); insights generated from the data are akin to a memory

They will demonstrate a framework that companies can use for organising a mix of use cases, identifying impacted data domains, common technical capabilities need and how to select the right approach based on the use case and data. Armed with the knowledge of how to classify a mix of analytics, artificial intelligence & data science use cases and match them up with right technical approaches, attendees will be prepared to create a mini-roadmap of projects based their existing in-house technology and identify where capability gaps exits. They will also understand the core processes for model design and build/test.

SME vs Big Data Generated PHA Checklists
Roxanne Mai & Ronjit Mukherjee, Risk Alive Analytics, Canada

This paper shows a case study comparison between an SME generated HAZOP checklist and a Big Data generated HAZOP checklist, and highlights the high similarity/accuracy when compared, as well as the time savings of a Big Data generated HAZOP checklist methodology.

DSEAR

To Zone or Not to Zone
Jonathan Lowe, RPS Group, UK

Based on both EI15 and Non-binding guidance there is an argument to apply zoning to pressurised cylinders or similar quantities. This presentation   will   consider   some   of   the common   auxiliary arrangements where to  Zone  or  not  to  Zone could  be  debated as  well  as  the  impact  of  the overrising requirement to carry out a risk assessment as per Regulation 5 of DSEAR.

Comparison of Hazardous Area Classification
David Watts, Pablo Giacopinelli & Gary Pilkington, Gexcon, UK

In this paper, Gexcon has compared the hazardous zone extents which can be obtained using standards, industry guidance, first principle engineering calculations and different consequence modelling software tools for a range of scenarios commonly found at manufacturing facilities(eg pressurised releases and liquid pools). It will outline the findings of the comparisons and discuss the suitability of the various hazardous area classification tools for the range of scenarios considered.

Application of Functional Safety to a Burner Management System – How to Avoid Common Pitfalls
Michael Scott, aeShield, USA

This presentation will outline a methodology to allow one to cost effectively and efficiently apply the performance-based concepts contained in IEC 61511 to a fired device in either a brownfield or greenfield application.

The Role of an Innovative Approach to DSEAR in Accelerated Early Career Development
Rebecca Phillip & Adriana Reyes Cordoba, Atkins Global, UK

Atkins has been appointed as a consultant on Scottish Water’s DSEAR compliance programme to assess existing water, wastewater and sludge management assets. The programme is divided into tranches to prioritise those assets that present greater potential risk to Scottish Water. The DSEAR approach adopted by Atkins has been successful in completing a large number of assessments in a very short span of time, and has narrowed down the number of full assessments required and avoided repeated assessments of sites. This would have been a difficult challenge if the traditional DSEAR approach was followed.

Atkins’ DSEAR team consists of engineers from different technical backgrounds namely, chemical, civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. This collaborative effort has provided a highly effective learning opportunity for every member within the team – both those in early career stages (DSEAR analysts) and engineers with greater industrial experience and knowledge (checkers and assessors). This approach has provided continuous learning and intensive professional development for early careers individuals.

Environment

Flood Risk Management – Are You Prepared?
Brad Eccles & Steve Fitzgibbon, ABS Consulting, UK

This paper will present the lessons learned from ABS Consulting’s experience of supporting clients globally and will provide insights into the typical gaps they have found in flood mitigation measures and management plans. They will also answer the typical questions that operators have with respect to flood mitigation.

Guidance to Provide an Economic Value (or Series of Values) Which Can Be Applied When Undertaking a CBA Under Major Hazard Establishments for Environmental Purposes
Rocio Salado, RPA Ltd, UK

This study has been commissioned by the Energy Institute (EI) to review, collate and analyse existing guidance on the value of preventing harm to the environment, both nationally and locally, to develop a single technical document that contributes to an increased consistency in risk management decisions and the development of best practice in undertaking Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) under COMAH for environmental purposes.

The Application of Satellite Data for Detection and Monitoring of Methane Emissions and the Integration Opportunities with Weather and Plant Sensor Data
Darren Steele, Stiperstone Analytics, UK & Dr Ian Spence, GHGSat, UK

This paper introduces the use of satellites and aircraft sensors to observe and measure greenhouse gas emissions directly from industrial facilities. It also describes how the application of space observation data can help industrial facilities to decarbonise their activities and enhance environmental reporting with improved emissions monitoring coverage and leak risk assessment. 

Fire and Explosion Hazards

Fight or Flight: What’s your Fire Response?
Kristen Graham & Karen Vilas, Baker Engineering & Risk Consultants, USA

The concept of a Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA), or Fire Risk Assessment (FRA), is referenced in many standards, practices, and guidance documents. However, the standards and guidance documents are often somewhat subjective when discussing methodology application. Many facilities simply default to a prescriptive, area-based firewater coverage calculation. Using a real petrochemical facility case study, this paper helps bridge the gap between the subjective language in standards and an actual fire hazard study by applying a semi-quantitative method for determining the maximum credible firewater demand for a major hazard site.  The petrochemical facility used as a case study for this paper is located in an area with only a limited water supply, which is problematic because the company has a philosophy which favours the use of fixed protection systems. This paper will use the case study described to highlight the importance of determining a corporate and/or site specific philosophy for fire protection which is supported by fire protection systems and emergency response plans available.

SafePool
Seckin Gokce, Ahmet Can Serfidan, Eyup Azizoglu & Gokhan Gedik, Turpras, Turkey

SafePool is a 'live' risk tool which creates an environment for the digital transfer of the critical scenarios and barriers determined in process hazard studies and checks whether these barriers actually work in the live system over various error modes. This presentation will explain how SafePool is being used at the Tupras Izmit oil refinery in Turkey to help everyone understand the current risk situation of the facility, to help operators and engineers make sure that critical barriers in their system will work when needed, and to contribute to the safety culture.

The Use of Ester Based Transformer Liquids for Reduced Fire Risk and Lower Costs
James Reid, M&I Materials, UK

This presentation will give a comparison of the fire behaviour of mineral oil and ester liquids, through various experiments that have been conducted. Reference is made to how these experiments relate to the application of these liquids in transformers. The recommendations of standards and large insurance companies are discussed, showing that reductions in spacing and fire protection can be gained by specifying a less flammable ester liquid. This has the potential to reduce overall installation costs, despite the ester liquid having a higher cost. In addition, case studies demonstrate how the increased fire safety of ester liquids is being increasingly employed.

Human Factors

The Impact of Cognitive Bias in Safety
Trish Kerin, IChemE Safety Centre (ISC), Australia

Bias surrounds us every day. Everything we look at has a lens of our experience colouring our perception, and everyone has their own lens. This impacts how we share and receive information. So why is this important for process safety? Cognitive biases cover a range of aspects, each of which can have an impact on process safety, from what we remember, to coping with too much information, to a lack of context and meaning or a need to act with great haste. There are many identified specific cognitive biases, not every one of them impacts on process safety, but many can and have. This paper will review several process safety type incidents that had cognitive bias as a factor and discuss ideas on how to manage the bias, so we do not fall into its trap. 

Human Factors Issues in Turnarounds (TARs)
Jamie Henderson & Richard Marshall, Human Reliability, UK

As part of the planning activity for a significant turnaround (TAR) at a large process plant, shut-down and start-up tasks were, over a period of several months, subjected to a form of Human Factors Critical Task Analysis (CTA). This resulted in the identification of a number of specific HF issues, but it also became clear that many of these issues were relevant across all of the plant units, and potentially to any facility undertaking a TAR. This paper summarises and discusses the general TAR issues identified by these reviews. Areas covered include TAR planning, plant issues (eg equipment identification, access), procedures, competence, isolation management, purging, gas testing, and leak testing.

Managing Operator Fatigue – It’s About More Than Just Sleep. Incorporating Lessons Learned from Offshore Wind into Process Safety in Onshore Major Hazard Facilities
Stefi McMaster, University of Hull, UK & Jenny Hull, RAS, UK

Operator fatigue is a major human-factors related risk for process safety, occupational safety and health, particularly in high hazard environments. Fatigue causes reduced alertness and risky behaviour which can significantly heighten the likelihood of severe occupational incidents if it is not managed appropriately. This presentation will apply the latest research in fatigue in the offshore wind industry to identify where improvements to fatigue management can be made within the broader realm of process safety management within high hazard operations such as those at COMAH establishments. A multi-dimensional approach is suggested, taking into account factors such as demand and barriers to successful fatigue management.

Identifying and Embedding Good Practice in Process Safety

The Message from Losses – What You Need to Know and Learn from to Prevent Major Accidents
Paul Clarke & Scott McNeil, Marsh, UK

Synopsis to follow.

Why Did They Do That? How To Conduct A Human Factors Incident Investigation
Steve Cutchen, retired Incident Investigator, Chemical Safety Board (CSB), USA

There are human factors that lead to incidents in the same way that mechanical factors do. Yet, by comparison, the analysis of these human factors has typically been non-scientific. Often, the individual in the causal chain is blamed as the root cause. Little effort is made to further classify the human factors that led to the individual's actions. And there is no analogue to the data analysis and cause mitigation programs that are in place for mechanical factors. And so, over time, we remain just as susceptible to these incidents.

This paper introduces the application of the tool Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) to fill this human factors gap in the incident investigation portion of process safety management. Were it to be developed today, a more descriptive name might be Safety Culture Appraisal Framework. At its most basic definition, HFACS structures brainstorming to allow determining why people do what they do. However, there is deeper information to be gleaned. The often obvious immediate actions by people lead to identification of less obvious latent preconditions, management actions, and organizational leadership factors. This means, similar to mechanical causal factors, categorised human factors can be analysed for trends, safety culture can be improved, and incidents can be reduced. In addition to the HFACS tool, the presentation also includes specific guidance on how to conduct investigative interviews and, most importantly, how to develop recommendations that actually prevent recurrence.

Embedding the Lessons of Hard Knocks – Trying Not to Repeat Our Mistakes Time and Time Again
Ken Patterson, Consultant, UK & Gillian Wigham, Synthomer, UK

How do we keep process safety knowledge alive in the operating environment? And can we spread the knowledge out to other companies and areas? Over the last 20 years, the authors have been involved with improving SHE performance in two international companies (Hickson International & Synthomer plc). In each case, remembering events which had happened was an important part of the safety performance of the company, as was spreading that knowledge to parts of the company remote from those events. Synthomer now uses things such as a “Black Book” of events, its extensive AIMS (Accident & Incident Management System) database of previous events, training and competence assessment, and incident publicity systems to ensure events – new and old – are not forgotten. The paper and presentation will describe how these systems have been built up and try to assess some of the success and failures of the systems in place.

Identifying and Embedding Good Practice in Process Safety – Safety Culture/Leadership
Peter Culbert, Exida, Ireland

Good practice in process safety always starts with leadership and the culture built around such roles, identifying with Industry experts and best practices such as dynamic assessments and honest reviews, and finally an open environment to learn from our own internal lessons or mistakes. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the key role that safety culture plays in both preventing and contributing to an accident/incident, and/or hazardous environment(s), along with identifying what key areas an organisation can focus on to meet their own internal process safety goals. Industry case studies of accidents will be reviewed and discussed, with emphasis placed on how critical safety culture and the role of leadership can be, in maintaining process safety within our industries, and continuously staying ahead of the hazard curve.

Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Response

Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic
Keith Plumb, Integral Pharma Services, UK

In March 2020, a team of volunteer chemical engineers and other engineering professionals formed the IChemE/ISPE UK COVID-19 Response Team. This presentation will look at the ways they shared their expertise to help reduce the impact of the COVID pandemic and the lessons that have been learnt from the project.

Case Study – Design and Build of New Plant for Production of a Key Ingredient for a COVID-19 Vaccine
Carolyn Nicholls, RAS, UK & Robert Hanson, Croda Europe, UK

An interesting example of a project with significant challenges; to deliver a key ingredient for a COVID-19 vaccination in the height of the pandemic with immense time pressure and limitations presented by COVID-19 measures. The available timeframe highlighted the importance of inherent safety as the starting point for any good design and provided the opportunity to focus on innovative and pragmatic solutions for process safety.

The company typically uses the traditional 6-stage hazard study approach from its heritage.  Traditional approaches were challenged and tailored for modern application, for instance hazard studies were carried out remotely to comply with restrictions. Careful thought and adaptation made for a more pragmatic, more useful, and successful approach. Process safety reviews were used as check points, and to provide breathing space and assurance to the designers. A competent and agile team made this possible, with independent input. This case study will discuss the importance of the right people, using the right processes at the right time, for successful risk understanding and management.

The case study will highlight the key process safety decisions in the design, provided by the lead process engineer (Rob Hanson, Croda), and the approach to the risk understanding and management (overview by Carolyn Nicholls, RAS Ltd). 

Pressure forces people to think differently and challenge the norms. This is a great example of where those pressures have revealed efficiencies and techniques that will be shared and adopted into future projects.

Better Together – Lessons from the Chemical Industry Association in the Pandemic
Louise Whiting, Barberton Ltd, UK & Phil Scott, Chemical Industries Association (CIA), UK

A look at the lessons learned from some of the significant challenges that faced the high hazard industries in 2020/2021, including operational changes, making new products, and maintaining supply chains. The presentation will highlight the importance of working together as an industry, as well as the need for proactive engagement with stakeholders, and changing the accepted norms.

LOPA Versus Covid – Return to Work
Pablo Garcia-Trinanes & Ali Mokhber, University of Greenwich, UK; Christopher Ross

This presentation will consider how the LOPA methodology can be applied to COVID infection risk, by initially calculating a transmission rate and then evaluating the safeguards’ probability of failures in order to develop ‘Covid Fatality Metrics’ which is the yardstick measurement tool to manage the virus spread.
 
Managing Process Safety by Digitalisation During the Pandemic
Ahmet Kemal Ozoral, Seckin Gokce & Eda Akkus, Tupras Izmit Refinery, Turkey

This presentation will share lessons learned at the Tupras Izmit oil refinery in Turkey from carrying out process hazard analysis, management of change (MOC) and incident investigations via remote video applications.

Risk Based Prioritisation of Maintenance Backlog Items
Chetan Birajdar, Ricardo Bandini & Khama Matiti, MES International, UK

This presentation will discuss a risk-based approach, based on the output of safety, risk and reliability studies such as Bowtie, QRA, RCM, FMECA, RBI, SIL studies, etc to set up a strategy to implement an effective and fully auditable prioritisation process.

Lessons Learned and the Pros & Cons of Virtual HAZOP
Azzam Younes, AyEnergi Consulting, UK

The author will share his practical experience chairing virtual HAZOP under COVID-19 and provide insight into some of the challenges he faced, as well as the lessons learned.

Mist Hazards

Demystifying Mist Explosion Hazards
Stephanie El–Zahlanieh, Idalba Souza Dos Santos, Hugo Tostain & Olivier Dufaud, University of Lorraine, France; Alexis Vignes, INERIS, France; Simon Gant, Health and Safety Executive, UK

There is limited guidance on hazardous area classification for flammable mists. Whilst classification of flammable gases and dusts is well established, there is a need for scientific evidence to support the classification of flammable mist hazards. To address this knowledge gap, this paper presents an extensive study of diesel, biodiesel, and light fuel oil mists. These high-flashpoint liquid fuels were chosen as they have a high industrial interest and were involved in many reported incidents.

Ignitability of Diesel Fuel Mists over a Vertical Distance
Louise O’Sullivan & Dr Richard Bettis, Health & Safety Executive, UK; Dr Anthony Giles, Cardiff University, UK

Standards such as ATEX regulations and BS EN 60079-10-1 are relatively sparse when considering the mists of high flash point fuels. This paper reports on work undertaken to improve understanding of the conditions where a flammable mist can be created, with a focus on diesel fuel, as well as the maximum ignitable distance.

Flammability Testing for Heavy Oil Mists
Hannes Engel, Gexcon, UK

For the purpose of hazardous area classifications as part of DSEAR assessments, the Energy Institute Model code of safe practice Part 15 (EI15) provides an approach to determine the extent of the hazardous area resulting from pressurised release of a high flash point liquid. Recent studies and reports, such as RR980, RR1107, RR1109 and RR110 published by the HSE, have indicated that these zones may be over-conservative in some instances, resulting in potentially unnecessarily high costs with regards to the avoidance of ignition sources in these hazardous areas.

Gexcon has been working together with a large power plant client in the UK to experimentally investigate the ability of heavy oils (Class G in BS 2869) to atomise leading to a potentially flammable atmosphere and subsequent ignition either through impingement or as a free spray in the event of an accidental release. The experiments have been conducted across a set of pressures and temperatures. This paper outlines the findings of the experiments and discusses their potential implication on hazardous area classifications.

Modelling

A Case Study for Natural Gas Explosion in a Confined Space
Md Easir Arafat Khan, Easir A Khan, Iftekhar Hassan & Sayedil Morsalin, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Bangladesh

Natural gas (NG) and liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used as a cooking fuel in most urban areas in Bangladesh. In 2020, there were more than 900 fire incidents originated from the leakage of natural gas pipelines and LPG cylinders, mostly in urban areas of Bangladesh and many of them catastrophic and deadly. This presentation discusses the analysis undertaken to understand the explosion hazard potential and consequences of such incidents and how to control them.

Applying Standards and Transient Simulations to Find Root Cause of Fire Incident
Mira Ezora Zainal Abidin, Siti Fauzuna Othman & Zalina Harun, Petronas, Malaysia

Lessons learned from a recent fire incident involving a nitrogen storage tank installed within a processing unit in a refinery. Lack of data and evidence hampered the investigation team to determine the plausible root cause, with instrumentation and fittings destroyed in the fire and the Pandemic delaying the collection and testing of evidence. About five possible root causes were established – this paper shares the methodology and transient simulations used to establish the root cause and led to design modications to mitigate or minimise future incidents.

Advanced Methodology of Structural Redundancy Analysis for Optimising Passive Fire/Cryogenic Spill Protection
Hiroki Takahashi & Yoshinori Hiroya, JGC Corporation, Japan

Lessons learned from applying the advanced methodology of structural redundancy analysis against a pool fire and cryogenic spill accident to optimise the application area of Passive Fire Protection (PFP) and Cryogenic Spill Protection (CSP) on structural steel in an onshore oil and gas plant.

Comparisons of the Predictions of the Dispersion Model DRIFT Against Data for Hydrogen, Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide
Graham Tickle, ESR Technology, UK

This paper presents the results of new validation studies comparing DRIFT predictions with dispersion data for hydrogen, ammonia and carbon dioxide substances. The comparisons are with high pressure hydrogen gas jets (Veser et al, 2011), two-phase ammonia jets (EC FLADIS) and single and two-phase carbon dioxide jets (CO2PIPETRANS JIP).

Is Your Tank Inert? A CFD Study into the Challenges of Ensuring Inert Atmospheres
Alan Collier & Stephen Puttick, Syngenta, UK

The maintenance of an inert atmosphere is often the primary basis of safety for enclosed systems where flammable materials are stored or processed. It can also support the control of ignition sources to reduce the residual risk. Following an enquiry from one of their manufacturing sites, the Syngenta Process Studies Group explored the challenges of ensuring inert atmospheres using available guidance and developed a module which highlights that standard calculations are not suitable for all systems. 

Monte Carlo CFD Simulations for Quantifying Uncertainty Associated with Vapour Cloud Explosions
Christopher Stirling, Viper Blast, UK & Jordi Dunjó, Bright Calcs LLC, USA

This paper presents a novel methodology for defining and executing a large number of detailed CFD simulations based upon a statistical sampling of the primary input parameters, and using the results of those simulations as the basis for a probabilistic consequence assessment.

Addressing the Unique Challenges of Hydrogen Gas Detection in 3D Fire and Gas Mapping
Khama Maiti, Chris Dysart, Alex Lebas, Lloyd Samaniego, Hasanah Shamsuri, Ahmad Muzammil & Filippo Derosa, Monaco Engineering Solutions, UK

Using 3D computation fluid dynamics (CFD) explosion analysis, this paper aims to present an effective strategy for establishing appropriate flammable gas detection performance targets for hydrogen gas risks. In addition, an example of a scenario/risk-based approach will be presented to demonstrate how flammable hydrogen gas detection performance targets can be used to establish a realistic and effective hydrogen gas detection arrangement and reduce risks to ALARP.

Pressure Relief

Assessment of Operators’ Response Time on Safe Operation of Distillation Columns: A Process Dynamic Analysis
Zalina Harun & Zulfan Adi Putra, Petronas, Malaysia

Dynamic simulation has been instrumental in delivering solutions to ensure safety and controllability in process plants. In this work, dynamic simulations were performed as a follow up to a Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) study for two existing distillation columns.

Mechanical Response of Shells to Tube Rupture in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
Colin Deddis, Greymore Engineering Services, UK; Mark Scanlon, Energy Institute, UK; Alan Clayton, Consultant, UK; Rob Kulka, TWI, UK

Conventional static analysis is currently used for determining the shell stresses during a tube rupture despite its dynamic nature. The work presented in this paper was motivated by a concern that a tube rupture may result in shell vibration, to a level which may damage or fail the shell wall.

The work demonstrates the need to account for a dynamic magnification of the pressure imposed on the shell due to the structural response of the heat exchanger during a tube rupture. The paper introduces a new concept for evaluating the dynamic effects on the shell without the need for extensive structural modelling. Results used to validate this approach will be presented along with a methodology which will be incorporated in the third edition of the Energy Institute guidelines in late 2021.

Adopting this methodology will ensure that heat exchangers and their overpressure protection systems are adequately designed to prevent a loss of containment in the unlikely but credible event of a tube rupture.

Detailed Analysis of Temperature and Pressure Behaviour During Reaction Runaway for Vent Sizing
Yuto Mizuta Turo, Motohiko Sumino, Hiroaki Nakata, Yuichiro Izato & Atsumi Miyake, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Japan

This paper provides an example of an application of the ISO 4126-10 model for vent sizing, consideration/comparison with DIERS methodology and the use of process simulation tools for a system specific to the Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation.

Process Hazard Analysis

Latest HAZOP Practice
James Fairburn, Chevron, UK

Many aspects of HAZOP methodology have been presented in various publications and conferences. This presentation highlights three separate and discrete areas of latest HAZOP practice in Chevron, perhaps not common practice across industry, in order to promote sharing and broader learning within the process safety community.

Process Hazard Analysis for Smaller Changes: Tips and Tools for Avoiding Misses and Improving Quality
Jody Olsen, Consultant, USA

This paper recaps industry guidance and some regulatory requirements regarding the intersection of Management of Change (MoC) and Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) requirements. A brief recap is given regarding when we conduct MoC in the context of larger and smaller modification projects.

However, the focus of this paper is to provide guidance on how to determine the need for process hazard analysis within MoCs of any size and to provide guidance on how to help define those process hazard review requirements. Barriers are acknowledged and discussed. However, some solutions and tools are provided. Examples of better practices are offered including a sample screening tool for use in identifying and assigning an appropriate level of process hazard review.

Minimising Human Error in PHA Documentation
Carol Li & Ronjit Mukherjee, Risk Alive Analytics, Canada

In process safety, the industry is well aware that humans can make errors. The industry is also aware that the more stressed and fatigued humans are, the more frequent they may make errors. Often times these characteristics impact the personnel involved in a PHA session, which means the documentation of a PHA can have errors as well.  Many times, project or plant driven PHAs have high expectations of scope completeness with lower allowance on time, leading to the feeling of a compressed PHA session. This pressure of time can lead to these normal human errors, which can unfortunately lead to critical documentation issues. This presentation looks at how to minimise this  human error.

Process Safety Competencies

Strengthening Regulators' Competence in Learning from Operational Safety Performance
Fidel Ilizastigui, Todus Advisors, Cuba

This paper provides recommendations to new regulatory bodies regarding the manner in which the oversight and learning from operator’s safety performance should be integrated in the regulator’s management system as a core regulatory function called “Analysis”. The Analysis core regulatory function may rely heavily on the acquisition of new competence in Human and Organisational Factors (HOFs) to allow the regulator to a) detect signs of declining safety performance; b) diagnose latent organisational weaknesses (root causes) and c) make effective timely safety culture interventions. In particular, in relation to incidents, the manner in which regulators react to them determines how well they are going to learn from these events and prevent future incidents.

Practical Experience of Rolling out Process Safety Competency Assessments Across a Large Multinational Company
Graeme Ellis, Matthey, UK

Assuring the competency of staff in process safety critical roles is a key requirement on high hazard sites to ensure that the management system requirements are complied with effectively. This paper describes practical experiences of carrying out individual competency assessments across a large multinational company, based on the method published by the IChemE Safety Centre (ISC) in 2018.

Linking Critical Competencies with Major Accident Hazards
Chris Proud, Andrew Lawson & Luke Butcher, ESR Technology, UK; Andy Brazier, AB Risk, UK

This paper describes a recent scope of work for a North Sea operator that aimed to develop an effective system for identifying critical competencies with a clear and transparent link to major accident hazards. Bow-Tie diagrams that had been developed for a group of offshore installations were used to demonstrate the link between barriers and competence of individuals at all levels in the organisation.

Process Safety Management

Effective Field Engagement and Management of Higher Consequence Scenarios
Martin R Ovenden, ExxonMobil, UK

ExxonMobil utilises a structured risk assessment process to manage process safety risks and reduce process safety incidents. With the goal of continuous improvement, and through learnings from external benchmarking, we identified an opportunity to further enhance our focus on low frequency higher consequence events through a scenario management process. Our Scenario Management starts with identifying major hazards, and the higher consequence potential scenarios associated with them; defines critical safeguards that prevent or mitigate those scenarios; and then defines a process to manage those critical safeguards to keep them healthy. For the higher consequence scenarios, standard bowties were developed to further define the scenario and its critical safeguards. For each critical safeguard, performance criteria were developed. Following on from these activities, this paper describes the framework used to operationalise the bowties and support their understanding and effective management by field personnel. 

Hazard Management in NOVA Sclairtech Technology Polyethylene Plant
Amit Kanch, Nova Chemicals, India

The LLDPE-1 swing plant at GAIL (India) Limited, PATA manufactures a wide range of Polyethylene pellets (both High Density Polyethylene & Liner Low Density Polyethylene) with Melt Index ranging from 0.5 to 23 dg/min, employing the solution phase polymerisation technology SCLAIRTECH licensed by Nova Chemicals, Canada.

The various polyethylene grades produced from this process technology are of high quality and are widely accepted in the markets worldwide. However, the nature of this process technology is such that inherently it is not as safe as other polymerisation technologies. Plant operation & maintenance activities involves several process safety hazards. This paper is an attempt to share the experiences of safely handling the process safety hazards involved in the operation and maintenance of a critical process plant.

Applying Process Safety Experiences and Lessons Learnt to Achieve Improvements in Plant Up-Time and Stability of Production
Anees Iqbal Ansari & Mohammad Moonis, Pleiades Global, UK

This presentation aims to highlight some common aspects of plant design, operation and maintenance which, when rationalised, can lead to increased plant up-time and stability of production, without compromising on safety. This is presented through sharing of experiences from various reviews carried out for oil and gas processing facilities.

Risk Analysis

Preliminary Hazard Analysis and Mitigation for the Prevention of Catalyst Regeneration Vessel’s Catastrophic Rupture
Manesha Thiyaga Rajan, Noor Arnida Abdul Talip & Hasnor Hassaruddin Hashim, Petronas, Malaysia

Identification of risk scenarios is crucial for complete coverage of risk assessment and to ultimately ensure plant process safety. A typical Residual Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (RFCC) Unit functions to collect and convert various reduced crudes to lower boiling point, high value products, primarily C3-C4 LPG, gasoline, and light cycle oil using a specialised catalyst. The RFCC unit comprises multiple sections but this paper focuses on the Reaction and Regeneration (R2R) section, which incorporates a two-stage regeneration system, a proprietary catalyst separator, a catalyst cooler, a catalyst withdrawal well, several catalyst transfer lines and slide valves control systems. Plant exposure to overpressure scenarios may lead to a catastrophic rupture of the catalyst regeneration separator which will cause unit shutdown for approximately six months, either for repair or for new purchase and installation.

This paper presents the outcome of a preliminary hazard analysis on a catalyst cooler in a RFCC complex upon over-pressurisation of the HP steam supply line due to process upsets or equipment failures.

New International Failure Frequency Database for High Pressure Gas Installations
Mike Acton, C Humphreys & Z Wattis, DNV, UK; H Olafsen, Energinet, Denmark

An essential input to any QRA is the predicted failure frequency. For buried pipelines, there are several sources of historical data to derive failure frequencies. However, no equivalent sources have been available for the high-pressure gas installations that are an essential part of any gas transmission system. This paper reports on the AGIFF (Above Ground Installation Failure Frequencies) project, which was initiated to establish a statistical database for incidents on high pressure gas installations to improve the knowledge available for estimating failure frequencies from historical data and to enhance understanding of the causes of incidents and the types of facilities most likely to be affected. 

Assessing the Risks when Expanding Process Plants or Building New Units on Compact Sites
Robert Canaway, Suregrove, UK

Many process and utility plants are being expanded or new units are being added to sites which often leads to existing facilities being compromised. This paper will provide some insight into how the plant risk assessment should include a review of the exposures to infrastructure, the original plants and utilities. A number of examples will be given in case studies to show why the layout needs to undergo a thorough risk assessment before inserting new facilities and changes may have to be made to ensure the integrity of all of the site, and to highlight areas of new projects which are often overlooked by the owners or the contractors as they concentrate on the new design engineering and construction. The paper will also address revamps where increased production is the ultimate goal again using some or all of the existing plant equipment.

Risk Assessment

Cumulative Risk Model of Safety Barriers – Case Study
Yasser Fathy, Rashid Petroleum, Egypt

This paper focuses on a single upstream gas production facility, which is responsible for providing about 40% of the national gas demand. The facility is almost two years overdue for its planned shutdown for maintenance. Safety critical maintenance in the facility has been deferred, driven by the strategic importance of the gas supplies from the facility to the national gas grid. Without the ability to inspect, calibrate or certify safety critical equipment, the overall risk level of facility could exceed the risk acceptance criteria. This paper provides a mean to evaluate and communicate the cumulative risk using a structured method to give the management team of the facility an overview of the risk level.

Use of Live Barrier Models to Manage Risk
Rae Ann Joseph, Atlantic LNG, Trindad & Tobago

This paper demonstrates how use of a live barrier model can be used as a tool to verify the effectiveness of an operating facility’s safety critical equipment (SCE) and ensure facility hazards and risks are properly managed.

Evaluation, Visualisation and Monitoring of Cumulative Risk Exposure Resulting from Safety Critical Hardware and Human Barriers Deviation
Tayo Olunsanya, Olu Adeyemi & Seyi Olusanya, Melios Ltd, UK

This paper discusses an alternative approach to assessing cumulative risk derived from hardware and human Safety Critical Barriers (SCBs) deviations. This approach takes SCB impairments into account, including sub-elements and tasks that are necessary for the barriers to function as intended, and the interactions and dependencies between the sub-elements and tasks. The approach is consistent with industry guidelines and good practice publications. It utilises a custom algorithm that enables determination of cumulative risk ratings based on dynamic status of all SCB elements, the hazard management hierarchy principle, and credible and foreseeable scenarios related to identified Major Accident Hazards (MAHs) at a facility.

Safety Culture

Process Safety Site Visit to Improve PSM Culture
Ipek Isteben, Tupras, Turkey

Workplace learning on hazard management from the Tupras Izmit oil refinery in Turkey. Discover how collaborative process unit site visits have contributed to the safety culture development within the organisation.

Influencing Improvements in Safety Culture Using Qualitative Research Methods: a Regulatory Perspective
Nick Shaw, Office for Nuclear Regulation, UK

As the competent legal authority, ONR has a legal duty to take measures to promote and enhance an effective nuclear safety culture. One recent addition to ONR’s regulatory toolkit to assist it in meeting this legal duty is a suite of qualitative research methods to enable its specialist inspectors to undertake targeted assessments of safety culture, culture change, or to diagnose problems which may be affecting safety or security performance. ONR’s newly published methodology for doing this is documented in an ONR Guidance Document, RD-HOC-GD-001, Examining Culture in Organisations: Guidance on Utilising Qualitative Methods in Organisational Research.

This presentation will briefly introduce the audience to the research methodology outlined in the guide, to demonstrate how these methods have been used in a real-world context to identify cultural improvements, to show how they are applicable across industries, and have benefits for both safety and business performance and outcomes. 

Process Safety Cards "A Good Deal Safer"
David Hatch, PS Integrity, UK

How do we put knowledge into the right hands? In order to gain and sustain the attention and participation of the workforce, which may range from novices who need to be informed to veterans who need to be reminded, it is becoming more common to use gamification methods. These employ game design elements e.g., point scoring, competition with others, rules of play to improve user engagement, learning and knowledge retention. However, many games require considerable time to set up and play or often cannot be played in the workplace due to the cost and complexity of deploying electronic devices e.g., laptops or tablets to host the games safely (flammable atmosphere ignition potential).

Process Safety Cards offer an alternative approach which presents the benefits of gamification without the time and cost burdens and is based on microlearning eg small learning units absorbed in small time units. 

The Safety Culture of the Regulator
Marc McBride, Office for Nuclear Regulation, UK

This presentation will set out work recently completed by the Nuclear Energy Agency’s Working Group on Safety Culture, an international group of nuclear regulators, to develop guidance on how regulators can assess and strengthen their safety culture. It will focus on methods regulators can use to assess and reflect on their safety culture, using quantitative and/or qualitative methods (such as surveys and focus groups, with supporting data analysis) and build competence of staff in this area, for example through training and structured workshops. The guidance was developed through a survey and analysis of methods developed by nuclear regulators worldwide and lessons learned in their application.

Leadership Matters – Real World Examples of Process Safety Leadership Good Practice
Ashley Hynds & Colin Chambers, WSP, UK

Senior leaders play a critical role in ensuring that process safety risks are well managed within their businesses. Successive major accidents, including those at Piper Alpha, Texas City, Longford, and Buncefield have graphically demonstrated the catastrophic consequences that can occur when senior leaders fail to set the right culture within their organisations, and are not sufficiently connected with activities at the front line.

This paper will present several ‘real world’ case studies of process safety leadership good practices from different sectors. These include examples in the areas of increasing workforce engagement, delivering more effective audits and site leadership visits, ensuring adequate process safety competency, and measures to help build a positive safety culture. The authors have many years of experience to draw upon, having worked within the process industries, as operator, consultant and regulator.

With the HSE committed to programmes of process safety leadership inspections at both COMAH and offshore installations in the coming years, it is becoming increasingly important for individual operators to be able to practically demonstrate the role that their leadership plays, in the effective delivery of their major accident policies. It is hoped that the paper will provide such operators with several practical suggestions to help implement such policies, strengthen their organisational culture, and ultimately improve their overall process safety performance.

From Zero Accidents to Safety, Quality and Productivity
Urbain Bruyere, Consultant, UK

The author has worked as a safety executive at BP, Anglo American and GSK, and was part of the initial response team to the BP Texas City Refinery explosion. Over his career, his approach to safety has evolved from ‘zero accidents’ to ‘safety, quality and productivity’. He will reflect on the limitations of a ‘zero accidents’ approach and how to rise above them, and how to bring human performance and process safety together, and work across silos to engage employees and deliver safety, quality and productivity.

"It's an amazing learning experience with really high-quality technical presentations."

Trish Kerin, IChemE Safety Centre (ISC)

"The talks are a good mix of theoretical and practical. They give you the background and the theory but it's very focused on the applicability of it. I can take what's applicable back to my company and implement it there and then."

Teri Zdrojewski, AWE